In the last newsletter we discussed the Agile Development Processes, and the implications for product managers. In this newsletter we look at the process that the majority of product teams still follow, which is known as the “Waterfall” process.

Even though the Waterfall development process is more than 30 years old, and even though it is often cursed by engineers and product managers alike, it is still by far the most common process used to create software products.

请注意,在大多数情况下,团队将其产品开发过程描述为“瀑布”,这一直不合时为“瀑布”,这是基本上仍然被遵循的情况,尽管包括连续改进,SDLC,阶段,阶段评审等许多不同的名称。,阶段合同和基于里程碑。

在本文中,我们将尝试捕捉强度以及这种方法的关键弱点,并讨论产品经理可以的内容,并应该做些什么,以便最大化与此过程成功的机会。

一般原则

The conventional waterfall process is extremely simple in concept:

1) Phased Development – the model is that the software progresses through a well-defined series of phases beginning with a written description of the requirements, into first high-level architectural design, and then to low-level detailed design, then to code, then testing, and finally deployment.

2) Phase Review – each phase ends with a review of the deliverables from that phase, followed by sign-off and an explicit transition to the next phase.

瀑布方法可以非常非正式地或非常正式地应用,如美国国防部标准2167A(及更高版本498),描述了处理过程的每个步骤和许多文档可交付成果的详细信息。

同样,瀑布方法也在非常非正式的核心和更多的常见场景,其中来自营销部门的某人聚集了一些市场要求,并将他们提供给工程,他们提出了一个时间表,并在建筑设计上工作和工作然后一些详细的设计更复杂的区域,然后进入实施和测试,通常是beta,最后部署。

虽然我们很快就讨论了这种方法的最严重的局限性,但要承认将这种过程的关键特征为这么长期以来,它也很有用:

- 管理层欣赏该过程的(感知)可预测性。虽然不常见,但甚至是甚至是大型和复杂的软件项目的相当准确的时间表。然而,这假设您完全准确地了解要求和技术,并且不会发生变化。通过迭代方法,您并不真正知道需要多少迭代,这可能会对管理令人不安。

- 整个过程中有可交付成果。通过了解思考和彻底的文档和设计图,许多人(管理者,客户/客户和客户,甚至许多工程师)都是放心的。It helps these people to gauge progress towards the end, and also helps them feel better about the level of thinking that has gone into the project (even though there is no way to test whether or not the confidence is justified because unlike software you can’t execute paper documents). Many people make the mistake of feeling unjustifiably reassured by impressive specifications and documents.

产品管理问题

有许多众所周知的担忧,特别是来自产品经理的角度:

- PM问题:验证发生得太迟了

最昂贵的问题是,直到几乎没有实际的工作软件,即几乎结束的过程中,如果在大多数投资到大部分投资之前,都有很少的任何可见性。

The product manager must ensure that prior to moving into the design and implementation phases, the product must be prototyped and tested on actual target users, so that the specification that is eventually provided to the product development organization is describing a product that has been successfully validated with the target audience.

Likewise, if there are major technical risks, these too should be explored and feasibility questions resolved (by the engineering organization) prior to beginning the actual architectural design and implementation. Before proceeding, the team needs to know that the product specification is something that can be successfully delivered.

- PM问题:变化是昂贵和破坏性的

对先前阶段的任何改变决策不稳定过程,并导致相当大的痛苦和成本,尽可能多的工作进行审查和重新制作。此外,编码和测试过程经常在该过程中突发要求和架构中的架构中的问题。

产品管理器必须不断代表客户和用户的声音,并且需要更改时的时间。重要的是要指出,推迟变化的成本需要包括后续释放的成本来进行更正。在下次发布之前,仍然有时会有最有意义的时间,但在许多情况下,在许多情况下,何时越来越好,而不是稍后的情况。

– PM Issue: Responding to the Market

This approach has a relatively high overhead in terms of documentation and process for moving through the phases. One consequence of this is that it can take considerable time to make even relatively small changes to the software.

This puts additional pressure on the product manager to ensure that they are providing a validated specification for a successful product in the first place, but it also means that the product manager will need to work with the product team to make course corrections after release as quickly as possible.

Summary

我们所有人都看到了瀑布过程在实践中的后果,并不难以理解替代品的动机,例如我们之前讨论过的XP等敏捷方法。

In many ways, the Waterfall process represents an idealistic but naïve view of the software development process, where people are able to anticipate the key issues and fully understand the requirements. When this is the case — usually for very small projects — this approach can provide a reasonable path to a quality implementation.

Unfortunately, this is rarely the case with product software. In practice, the consequence is that the product ships later than planned due to changes, and then expensive, time-consuming follow-on releases are required in order to correct issues once real users have a chance to see and use the actual software.

但是,产品开发过程通常深深侵入产品开发组织,产品经理必须采取措施,以确保避免潜在的问题。最重要的关键是确保在转向实施阶段之前验证产品规范(请记住涵盖所有三种类型的验证,如“如何写一个好普“),您可以节省大量时间和成本。必威安卓手机版下载

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